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Limited Liability Company in Europe | 2023 Overview

November 15, 2023
This article is also available in
Hungarian

Legally recognised corporations in Europe take on many forms. We decided to shed some light on useful legislation insights, general incorporation requirements and characteristics of a LLC or Limited Liability Company in Europe.

Moreover, we decided to compare the legal aspects of LLCs in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Ukraine to provide a comprehensive yet clear overview of the requirements in the region.

Dive into the general features of LLCs, such as the basic characteristics of founders, minimum capital nature and limits, types of contributions and payment deadlines, guarantees required by shareholders, incorporation time, obligation of VAT registration, and much more.

Download the free PDF version of the comparison of LLCs in Europe, or find some selected data below

General features of a limited liability company in Europe

Founders

CZECH REPUBLIC

Natural persons or legal entities

No. of founders: Unlimited

HUNGARY

Natural persons or legal entities

No. of founders: Unlimited

POLAND

Natural persons or legal entities

No. of founders: Unlimited

 

ROMANIA

Natural persons or legal entities

No. of founders: up to 50

SLOVAKIA

Natural persons or legal entities

No. of founders: up to 50

UKRAINE

Natural persons or legal entities

No. of founders: Unlimited


Minimum capital and contribution

CZECH REPUBLIC

Minimum capital: CZK 1

Minimum contribution: CZK 1

Type of contribution: Monetary / non-monetary

HUNGARY

Minimum capital: HUF 3,000,000

Minimum contribution: HUF 100,000

Type of contribution: Monetary / non-monetary

 

POLAND

Minimum capital: PLN 5,000

Minimum contribution: PLN 5,000

Type of contribution: Monetary / non-monetary

ROMANIA

Minimum capital: RON 1

Minimum contribution: RON 1

Type of contribution: Monetary / non-monetary 

 

SLOVAKIA

Minimum capital: EUR 5,000

Minimum contribution: EUR 750

Type of contribution: Monetary / non-monetary

UKRAINE

Minimum capital: Not specified

Minimum contribution: Not specified

Type of contribution: Monetary / non-monetary

 


Registration procedure duration

CZECH REPUBLIC
1 – 2 weeks

%
ROMANIA
3 working days

%
HUNGARY
1-15 working days

%
SLOVAKIA
10 – 15 working days

%
POLAND
1-2 days online*

%

*2 – 4 weeks at the notary

UKRAINE
24 hours*

%

*after submitting documents to a state register


Court fee

CZECH REPUBLIC

CZK 6,000

HUNGARY

No fee for the court procedure

POLAND

PLN 600

(PLN 350 in case of registration via S24 platform)

ROMANIA

From February 2017, the Trade Register fees for incorporation have been removed, only Official Gazette publication fees are applicable

SLOVAKIA

EUR 150

UKRAINE

No state fee for registration

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